(A - E) (F - J) (K - O) (P - T) (U - Z)

  • U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) : The DOE managers programs of research, development and commercialization for various energy technologies, and associated environmental, regulatory and defense programs. DOE announces energy policies and acts as a principal advisor to the President on energy matters.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) : The EPA administers federal environmental policies, enforces environmental laws and regulations, performs research, and provides information on environmental subjects. The agency also acts as chief advisor to the President on U.S. environmental policy and issues.
  • Ultrahigh Voltage Transmission : Transporting electricity over bulk-power lines at voltage greater than 800 kilovolts.
  • Unbundling : Disaggregating electric utility service into its basic components and offering each component separately for sale with separate rates for each component. For example, generation, transmission and distribution could be unbundled and offered as discrete services.
  • Uncertainties : Uncertainties are factors over which the utility has little or no foreknowledge, and include load growth, fuel prices, or regulatory changes. Uncertainties are modeled in a probabilistic manner. However, in the Detailed Workbook, you may find it is more convenient to treat uncertainties as "unknown but bounded" variables without assuming a probabilistic structure. A specified uncertainty is a specific value taken on by an uncertainty factor (e.g. 3 percent per year for load growth). A future uncertainty is a combination of specified uncertainties (e.g. 3 percent per year load growth, 1 percent per year real coal and oil price escalation, and 2.5 percent increase in housing starts).
  • Unit Energy Consumption (UEC) : The annual amount of energy that is used by the electrical device or appliance.
  • Universal Service : Electric service sufficient for basic needs (an evolving bundle of basic services) available to virtually all members of the population regardless of income.
  • Unserved or Unmet Energy : The average energy that will be demanded but not served during a specified period due to inadequate available generating capacity.
  • Upgrade : Replacement or addition of electrical equipment resulting in increased generation or transmission capability.
  • Uprate : An increase in the rating or stated measure of generation or transfer capability.
  • Utility : A regulated entity which exhibits the characteristics of a natural monopoly. For the purposes of electric industry restructuring "utility" refers to the regulated, vertically-integrated electric company. "Transmission utility" refers to the regulated owner/operator of the transmission system only. "Distribution utility" refers to the regulated owner/operator of the distribution system which serves retail customers.
  • Utility-Earned Incentives : Costs paid to a utility for achieving consumer participation in DSM programs.
  • Utilization Factor : The ratio of the maximum demand of a system or part of a system to the rated capacity of the system or part of the system.
  • Valley Filling : Valley filling is a form of load management that increases or builds, off-peak loads. This load shape objective is desirable if a utility has surplus capacity in the off-peak hours. If this strategy is combined with time-or-use rates, the average rate for electricity can be lowered.
  • Variable Costs : Costs, such as fuel costs, that depend upon the amount of electric energy supplied.
  • Variable Prices : Prices that vary frequently. Prices that are not stable.
  • Vertical Integration : An arrangement whereby the same company owns all the different aspects of making, selling, and delivering a product or service. In the electric industry, it refers to the historically common arrangement whereby a utility would own its own generating plants, transmission system, and distribution lines to provide all aspects of electric service.
  • Volt : A unit of electrical pressure. It measures the force or push of electricity. Volts represent pressure, correspondent to the pressure of water in a pipe. A volt is the unit of electromotive force or electric pressure analogous to water pressure in pounds per square inch. It is the electromotive force which, if steadily applied to a circuit having a resistance of one ohm, will produce a current one ampere.
  • Volt-amperes : The volt-amperes of an electric circuit are the mathematical products of the volts and emperes of the client.
  • Voltage : Measure of the force of moving energy.
  • Waste-to-Energy : This is a technology that uses refuse to generate electricity. In mass burn plants, untreated waste is burned to produce steam, which is used to drive a steam turbine generator. In refuse-derived fuel plants, refuse is pre-treated, partially to enhance its energy content prior to burning.
  • Watt : The electric unit of power or rate of doing work. One horsepower is equivalent to approximately 746 watts.
  • Watt-Hour : One watt of power expended for one hour.
  • Western systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) : One of the ten regional reliability councils that make up the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC).
  • Wheeling : The use of the transmission facilities of one system to transmit power for another system.
  • Wholesale Bulk Power : Very large electric sales for resale from generation sources to wholesale market participants and electricity marketers and brokers.
  • Wholesale Competition : A system whereby a distributor of power would have the option to buy its power from a variety of power producers, and the power producers would be able to compete to sell their power to a variety of distribution companies.
  • Wholesale Power Market : The purchase and sale of electricity from generators to resellers (who sell to retail customers) along with the ancillary services needed to maintain reliability and power quality at the transmission level.
  • Wholesale Transition : The sale of electric power from an entity that generates electricity to a utility or other electric distribution system through a utility's transmission lines.
  • Wholesale Transmission Services : The transmission of electric energy sod, or to be sold, at wholesale in interstate commerce.
  • Wind Energy Conversion : A process that uses energy from the wind and converts it into mechanical energy and then electricity.
  • Winter Peak : The greatest load on an electric system during any prescribed demand interval in the winter season or months.
  • Wires Charge : A broad term which refers to charges levied on power suppliers or their customers for the use of the transmission or distribution wires.

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