(A - E) (F - J) (K - O) (P - T) (U - Z)

  • Kilovolt ampere (kVA) : The practical unit of apparent power, which is 1,000 volt-amperes. The volt-amperes of an electric circuit are the mathematical products of the volts and amperes of the client.
  • Kilowatt (kW) : The electrical unit of power equal to 1,000 watts.
  • Kilowatt-Hour (kWh) : The basic unit of electric energy equal to one kilowatt of power supplied to or taken from an electric circuit for one hour.
  • Layoff : Excess capacity of a generating unit, available for a limited time under the terms of a sales agreement.
  • Levelized : A lump sum that has been divided into equal amounts over period of time.
  • Lightning Arrestor : This protects lines, transformers, and equipment from lightning surges by carrying the charge to the ground. Lightning arrestors serve the same purpose on a line as a safety valve on a steam boiler.
  • Line : A line is a system of poles, conduits, wires, cables, transformers, fixtures, and accessory equipment used for the distribution of electricity to the public.
  • Load : The amount of electric power delivered or required at any specified point or points on a system. Load originates primarily at the power consuming equipment of the customer.
  • Load Building : Programs aimed at increasing use of existing electric equipment or the addition of new equipment.
  • Load Centers : A limited geographical area where large amounts of power are used by customers.
  • Load Diversity : The condition that exists when the peak demands of a variety of electric customers occur at different times. This is the objective of "load molding" strategies, ultimately curbing the total capacity requirements of a utility.
  • Load Duration Curve : A curve that displays load values on the horizontal axis in descending order of magnitude against percent of time (on the vertical axis) the load values are exceeded.
  • Load Factor : The ratio of the average load supplied to the peak or maximum load during a designated period. Load factor, in percent, also may be derived by multiplying the kWh in a given period by 100, and dividing by the product of the maximum demand in kW and the number of hours in the same period.
  • Load Forecast : Estimate of electrical demand or energy consumption at some future time.
  • Load Management : Influencing the level and shape of demand for electrical energy so that demand conforms to present supply situations and long-run objectives and constraints.
  • Load Profile : Information on a customer's usage over a period of time, sometimes shown as a graph.
  • Load Ratio Share : Ratio of a transmission customer's network load to the provider's total load calculated on a rolling twelve-month basis.
  • Load Shape : A curve on a chart showing power (kW) supplied (on the horizontal axis) plotted against time of occurrence (on the vertical axis), and illustrating the varying magnitude of the load during the period covered.
  • Load Shifting : A load shape objective that involves moving loads from peak periods to off-peak periods. If a utility does not expect to meet its demand during peak periods but has excess capacity in the off-peak periods, this strategy might be considered.
  • Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) : A measure of the probability that system demand will exceed capacity during a given period; this period is often expressed as the expected number of days per year over a long period, frequently taken as ten consecutive years. An example of LOLP is one day in ten years.
  • Losses : The general term applied to energy (kWh) and capacity (kW) lost in the operation of an electric system. Losses occur principally as energy transformations from kWh to waste-heat in electrical conductors and apparatus. This waste-heat in electrical conductors and apparatus. This power expended without accomplishing useful work occurs primarily on the transmission and distribution system.
  • Low Heat Value (LHV) : The low or net heat of combustion for a fuel assumes that all products of combustion, including water vapor, are in a gaseous state.
  • Marginal Cost : The cost to the utility or providing the next (marginal) kilowatt-hour of electricity, irrespective of sunk costs.
  • Marginal Cost : The sum that has to be paid the next increment of product of service. The marginal cost of electricity is the price to be paid for kilowatt-hours above and beyond those supplied by presently available generating capacity.
  • Market Eligibility : The percentage of equipment still available for retrofit to the demand-side management measure. For example, if 20 percent of customers where demand controllers are feasible have already purchased demand controllers, then the eligible market eligibility factor is 80 percent.
  • Market-Based-Price : A price set by the mutual decisions of many buyers and sellers in a competitive market.
  • Marketer : An agent for generation projects who markets power on behalf of the generator. The marketer may also arrange transmission, firming or other ancillary services as needed. Though a marketer may perform many of the same functions as a broker, the difference is that a marketer represents the generator while a broker acts as a middleman.
  • Maximum Demand : Highest demand of the load within a specified period of time.
  • Maximum Demand : Highest demand of the load occurring within a specified period of time.
  • Measure Life : The length of time that the demand-side management technology will last before requiring replacement. The measure life equals the technology life. These terms are used synonymously.
  • Megawatt : One million watts.
  • Megawatt-hour (MWh) : One thousand kilowatt-hours or one million-watt hours.
  • Member System : An eligible customer operating as part of an agency composed exclusively of other eligible customers.
  • Meter Constant : This represents the ratio between instrument transformers (CTs, PTs) and the meter. It is used as a multiplier of the difference between meter readings to determine the kWh used. The meter constant is also used as a multiplier of the demand reading to determine the actual demand.
  • Mid-America Interconnected Network (MAIN : One of the ten regional reliability councils that make up the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC).
  • Mid-Atlantic Area Council (MAAC) : One of the ten regional reliability councils that make up the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC).
  • Mid-Continent Area Power Pool (MAPP); : One of the ten regional reliability councils that make up the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC).
  • Mill : One mill is equal to one-thousandth of a dollar.
  • Mobile Substation : This is a movable substation which is used when a substation is not working or additional power is needed.
  • Monopoly : The only seller with control over market sales.
  • Monopsony : The only buyer with control over market purchases.
  • Municipal Electric Utility : A power utility system owned and operated by a local jurisdiction.
  • Municipal Solid Waste : A Biomass resource that can be used to produce energy by the process of incineration.
  • Municipalization : The process by which a municipal entity assumes responsibility for supplying utility service to its constituents. In supplying electricity, the municipality may generate and distribute the power or purchase wholesale power from other generators and distribute it.
  • Native Load Customers : Wholesale and retail customers that the transmission provider constructs and operates a system to provide electric needs.
  • Net Capability : Maximum load carrying ability of the equipment, excluding station use.
  • Net Generation : Gross generation minus plant use.
  • Net Generation : Gross generation minus the energy consumed at the generating station for its use.
  • Network : A system of transmission and distribution lines cross-connected and operated to permit multiple power supply to any principal point on it. A network is usually installed in urban areas. It makes it possible to restore power quickly to customers by switching them to another circuit.
  • Network Customers : Customers receiving service under the terms of the Transmission Provider's Network Integration Tariff.
  • Network Integration Transmission Service : A service that allows the customer to integrate, plan, dispatch, and regulate its Network Resources.
  • Network Load : Designated load of a transmission customer.
  • New England Power Exchange (NEPEX) : This is the operating arm of the New England Power Pool.
  • New England Power Pool (NEPOOL) : A regional consortium of 98 utilities who coordinate, monitor and direct the operations of major generation and transmission facilities in New England.
  • Non-basic Service : Any category of service not related to basic services (generation, transmission, distribution and transition charges).
  • Non-bypassable Wires Charge : A charge generally placed on distribution services to recover utility costs incurred as a result of restructuring (stranded costs - usually associated with generation facilities and services) and not recoverable in other ways.
  • Non-Firm Power : Power supplied or available under terms with limited or no assured availability.
  • Non-Firm Transmission Service : Point-to-point service reserved and/or scheduled on an as-available basis.
  • Non-jurisdictional : Utilities, ratepayers and regulators (and impacts on those parties) other than state-regulated utilities, regulators and ratepayers in a jurisdiction considering restructuring. Examples include utilities in adjacent state and non-state regulated, publicly owned utilities within restructuring states.
  • Non-utility Generator : Independent power producers, exempt wholesale generators and other companies in the power generation business that have been exempted from traditional utility regulation.
  • Noncoincidental Peak Load : The sum of two or more peak loads on individual systems, not occurring in the same time period.
  • Nonutility Power Producer : A legal entity that owns electric generating capacity, but it not an electric utility.
  • North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) : Council formed by electric utility industry in 1968 to promote the reliability and adequacy of bulk power supply in utility systems of North America. NERC consists of ten regional reliability councils: Alaskan System Coordination Council (ASCC); East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement (ECAR); Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT); Mid-America Interconnected Network (MAIN); Mid-Atlantic Area Council (MAAC); Mid-Continent Area Power Pool (MAPP); Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC); Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC); Southwest Power Pool (SPP); Western systems Coordinating Council (WSCC).
  • North/South : Technology factors are provided for North and South because some equipment and technologies are temperature sensitive. A North designation generally represents a utility that experiences cold winters and has average annual heating degree days of at least 5,000 (based on a 65 degree base). A South designation has relatively mild winters but a significant saturation of air conditioning. This geographical designation is very general, but it is intended to separate out areas that are warmer than others.
  • Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC) : One of the ten regional reliability councils that make up the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC).
  • Notice of Proposed Rulemaking : A designation used by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for some of its dockets.
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission : This is the federal agency responsible for the licensing of nuclear facilities. They oversee these facilities and make sure regulations and standards are followed.
  • Obligation to Serve : The obligation of a utility to provide electric service to any customer who seeks that service, and is willing to pay the rates set for that service. Traditionally, utilities have assumed the obligation to serve in return for an exclusive monopoly franchise.
  • Off-peak : Periods of relatively low system demands.
  • Ohm : Unit of measure of electrical resistance.
  • On-Peak Energy : Energy supplied during periods of relatively high system demand as specified by the supplier.
  • Open Access : Access to the electric transmission system by any legitimate market participant, including utilities, independent power producers, cogenerators, and power marketers.
  • Operation and Maintenance Expenses : Costs that relate to the normal operating, maintenance and administrative activities of a business.
  • Options : Options are potential decisions over which a utility has a reasonable degree of control. One option might be to build a new coal-fired power plant; another option might be to refurbish an old power plant. Each option has one of more values to be specified. A specified option has a specified value such as year of implementation or size of plant. A plan is a set of specified options. A plan contains a set of decisions or commitments the utility can make, given the options available.
  • Outage : Time during which service is unavailable from a generating unit, transmission line, or other facility.
  • Overload : The flow of electricity into conductors or devices when normal load exceeds capacity.

Receive Energy Central eNews & Updates





 

Free Webinar | Regulation Changes and the Impact on Beneficial Use of Ash for Utilities

Tuesday Apr 16, 2019 - 1:30 PM Eastern - Virtual Event

Changing regulations and market conditions are reducing volume of CCRs produced and available for beneficial use as well as the increased demand for coal combustion products (CCPs) in the construction materials and concrete production industries. If you or your utility more...

SGTech Europe 2019

Tuesday Mar 26, 2019 - Thursday Mar 28, 2019 - Amsterdam

Drawing together 250+ smart grid technical professionals, and 40+ utility case-studies, this annual gathering is the most intensive, technically in-depth, and lively smart grid project exchange in Europe. There is no other programme that provides the depth and breadth of more...

2019 International SAP Conference for Utilities

Tuesday Apr 2, 2019 - Thursday Apr 4, 2019 - Milano Italy

First time in Milan, SAP’s flagship, global utility event has been expertly designed for IT and business professionals. With over 650+ attendees, the conference provides the perfect networking opportunity to meet with SAP experts and executives, users, prospects and partners, more...

Energy Marketing Conference 11

Tuesday Apr 2, 2019 - Houston, TX - USA

The conferences bring together hundreds of energy companies, utilities, marketers, vendors and suppliers in the competitive energy industry to network and learn more about our industry. It is the largest gathering of retail energy executives in North America. more...

CS Week 2019

Monday Apr 8, 2019 - Friday Apr 12, 2019 - Phoenix, AZ - United States

CS Week is the premier annual educational and customer service conference serving electric, gas and water/wastewater utility professionals across North America and around the world. Visit csweek.org and explore its different venues, and make sure to register early and save! more...

ACI’s 9th National Conference on Microgrids

Wednesday Apr 17, 2019 - Thursday Apr 18, 2019 - Boston, Massachusetts USA

Taking place on 17th & 18th April in Boston, ACI’s 9th National Conference on Microgrids will bring together key industry players to discuss the latest developments and challenges. The event also features an exclusive tour of the Otis Air National more...

Certificate of Excellence - DSM Program Management (Detroit)

Monday Apr 8, 2019 - Thursday Apr 11, 2019 - Detroit, MI - United States

Courses 1-4 are online. Courses 5 and 6 in Detroit, MI.* Course 5 introduces the demand-side management (DSM) program cycle- an iterative process, one that is tracked, measured, and improved over time. In Course 6, learn about the remaining two more...