(A - E) (F - J) (K - O) (P - T) (U - Z)

  • Above-market Cost : The cost of a service in excess of the price of comparable services in the market.
  • Access Charge : A charge for a power supplier, or its customer, for access to a utility's transmission or distribution system. It is a charge for the right to send electricity over another's wires.
  • Actual Peak Load Reductions : Reduction in annual peak load by consumers who participate in a DSM program that reflect changes in demand.
  • Affiliate : A company that is controlled by another or that has the same owner as another company.
  • Affiliated Power Producer : A generating company that is affiliated with a utility.
  • After-Market : Broad term that applies to any change after the original purchase, such as adding equipment not a part of the original purchase. As applied to alternative fueled vehicles, it refers to conversion devices or kits for conventional fuel vehicles.
  • Aggregation : The process of organizing small groups, businesses or residential customer into a larger, more effective bargaining unit that strengthens their purchasing power with utilities.
  • Aggregator : An entity that puts together customers into a guying group for the purchase of a commodity service. The vertically integrated investor owned utility, municipal utilities and rural electric cooperatives perform this function in today's power market. Other entities such as buyer cooperatives or brokers could perform this function in a restructured power market.
  • Alaskan System Coordination Council (ASCC) : One of the ten regional reliability councils that make up the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC).
  • Allowance for Funds Used During Construction (AFUD : Construction activities may be financed from internally generated funds (primarily earnings retained in the business), or from funds provided by other external sources (short- and long-term debt). The allowance for funds used during construction is intended to recognize the cost of these funds dedicated to construction activities during the construction period. To arrive at the "allowance", a common procedural method makes use of a formula that is based on the assumption that short-term debt is the first source of construction funds. The cost rate for short-term debt is based on current costs. Since a utility plant is subject to depreciation, the allowance for funds used during construction is recovered in the form of depreciation from ratepayers over the service life of the plant to which it applies.
  • Alternating Current (AC) : Flow of electricity that constantly changes director between positive and negative sides. Almost all power produced by electric utilities in the United States moves in current that shifts direction at a rate of 60 times per second.
  • Ampere : Unit that measures electrical current in a circuit by 1 volt acting through a resistance of 1 ohm.
  • Ancillary Services : Services necessary for the transmission of energy from resources to loads.
  • Annual Effects : Effects in energy use and peak load resulting from participation in DSM programs in effect during a given period of time.
  • Annual Equivalent : An equal cash flow amount that occurs every year.
  • Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency : A measure of heating efficiency, in consistent units, determined by applying the federal test method for furnaces. This value is intended to represent the ratio of heat transferred to the conditioned space by the fuel energy supplies over one year.
  • Annual Maximum Demand : The greatest of all demands of the electrical load which occurred during a prescribed interval in a calendar year.
  • Annuity : A series of equal cash flows over a number of years.
  • Appliance Saturation : The percentage of households or buildings in a service area that have the type of equipment to which the demand-side technology applies. For example, if 50 percent of the residential customers have a central air conditioner, the appliance saturation is 50 percent.
  • Applicability Factor : The percentage of end-use energy and demand used by a technology to which the demand-side management (DSM) measure applies. For example, the high-efficiency fluorescent lighting DSM measure applies to fluorescent lighting but not all lighting. Applicability therefore represents the percent of the lighting end-use attributable to fluorescence for which there could be high-efficiency replacements installed.
  • Area Load : The total amount of electricity being used at a given point in time by all consumers in a utility's service territory.
  • Attributes : Attributes are the outcomes by which the relative "goodness" of a particular expansion plan is measured e.g. fuel usage. Some attributes, such as fuel usage, are measured in well-defined parameters. Other attributes (e.g. public perception of a technology) are more subjective. Attributes may be grouped in several ways. Categories include financial, economic, performance, fuel usage, environmental, and socio-economic. The attributes chosen must measure issues that directly concern the utility and have an impact on its planning objectives. Limiting the number of attributes reduces the complexity and cost of a study.
  • Available but not Needed Capability : Capability of generating units that are operable but not necessary to carry load.
  • Average Cost : The revenue requirement of a utility divided by the utility's sales. Average cost typically includes the costs of existing power plants, transmission, and distribution lines, and other facilities used by a utility to serve its customers. It also includes operations and maintenance, tax, and fuel expenses.
  • Average Demand : The energy demand in a given geographical area over a period of time. For example, the number of kilowatt-hours used in a 24-hour period, divided by 24, tells the average demand for that period.
  • Average Revenue per Kilowatt-hour : Revenue by sector and geographic area calculated by dividing the monthly revenue by monthly sales.
  • Avoided Costs : These are costs that a utility avoids by purchasing power from an independent producer rather than generating power themselves, purchasing power from another source or constructing new power plants. A Public Utility Commission calculates avoided costs for each utility, and these costs are the basis upon which independent power producers are paid for the electricity they produce. There are two parts to an avoided cost calculation: the avoided capacity cost of constructing new power plants and the avoided energy cost of fuel and operating and maintaining utility power plants.

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